Consumption Habits and Association with Total Water and Energy Intakes in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study
Scientific literature recognizes that the adequate intake of beverages depends on each individual and the variation for water needs in response to different health status, metabolism, and environmental factors such as ambient temperature and humidity, as well as individual factors such as age, body size, and level of physical activity. Furthermore, water intake also depends on overall diet, including the water contained in food.
The aim of the research Consumption Habits and Association with Total Water and Energy Intakes in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study has been to quantify the total water and beverage intake, and to explore associations between the types of beverage consumed and energy intake, consumption according to time of day and day of the week, the association between beverage variety and increased fluid intake, and compliance with the current reference values by sex and age.
Data show that more than 75 % of the participants in the study did not meet the recommendations for adequate water consumption proposed by the EFSA, which suggest that intake for adults should be 2.5 L/day for men and 2.0 L/day for women. Men consumed approximately 33 % less than the established recommendations and women nearly 21 % less. In grams, total water intake was 1,625 ± 14.2 g/day (1,664 ± 21.1 g/day for men and 1,585 ± 18.8 g/day for women).
Taking into account that the mean total energy intake in the ANIBES Study was 1,809 kcal/day, the relative contribution from beverages was 12 % (13 % for men, 12 % for women). Furthermore, 68 % of the total water intake came from beverages and 32 % from food. This figure is close to that proposed by some international authorities such as EFSA or WHO, who recommended that no more than 10 % of the daily calorie intake should come from beverages. The EFSA also recommended that between 70 % and 80 % of fluid should be provided by beverages and the remaining 20 %-30 % from food.
Learn all the data of the studyBeverage Consumption Habits and Association with Total Water and Energy Intakes in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study by cohort and by sex, as well as according to the days of the week.