Reported Dietary Intake, Disparity between the Reported Consumption and the Level Needed for Adequacy and Food Sources of Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium and Vitamin D in the Spanish Population
Micronutrients such as calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and vitamin D have a key role in bone development and maintenance, as well as other relevant biological roles.
This research is aimed to evaluate the disparity between the reported consumption and the level needed for an adequate contribution of the main micronutrients involved in bone metabolism (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and vitamin D). To do so, the coefficients of within-person variations for different age groups, as well as the food and beverages, were considered. This way, intake was assessed for both general population and plausible reporters physiologically.
Los resultados indican que existe un porcentaje importante dentro de la muestra estudiada en ANIBES que no alcanza las actuales recomendaciones de ingesta de calcio, magnesio y vitamina D. En concreto, el 76 % y el 79 % de la población reportó ingestas de calcio y magnesio menores al 80 % de las recomendaciones de ingesta diaria nacionales.
The results indicate that there is an important percentage of the ANIBES population not meeting the current recommended intakes for calcium, magnesium and vitamin D, even when considering only the sample comprising the plausible reporters.. Specifically, 76 % and 79 % of the population had reported intakes for calcium and magnesium below the 80 % of the national recommended daily intakes.
Men reported significantly higher consumption of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium than women when the total sample was considered. By age groups, the male population reported a higher intake of calcium in the group of children, adolescents and adults, as well as of magnesium in the group of adolescents, adults and elderly. Higher intake of calcium was observed in children and adolescents compared with adults and elderly. Furthermore, the consumption of phosphorus decreased, and that of vitamin D increased, with advancing age.